Nanda nursing diagnosis list mental health: Diagnosis, management and nursing care in acute coronary syndrome


Most ACS cases are caused by atherosclerosis, which takes place in the coronary arteries, often decades before a cardiac event. The formation of an atherosclerotic plaque begins with low-grade inflammation in the inner layer of blood vessels. The endothelial cells lining blood vessels sustain injury, change shape and become increasingly permeable to fluid, lipids and white blood cells. Circulating cholesterol carriers, especially low-density lipoprotein (LDL), can enter the arterial wall and undergo oxidation. White blood cells are involved and transform into macrophages, which engulf LDL; when they become lipid laden they are referred to as foam cells. These lipid-rich plaques contain inflammatory cells, cellular debris, smooth muscle cells with cholesterol, and a fibrous capsule. Over time they can progress and cause luminal narrowing of the blood vessel, thereby limiting blood flow. 

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