Wolters kluwer health lippincott williams wilkins powerpoints: Trends in Anthropometric Measures Among US Children 6 to 23 Months, 1976–2014

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The decline in reported birth weight over the study period, although small, could imply that, on average, children in 2011–2014 who were born lighter had higher rates of weight gain during early childhood than their 1976–1980 counterparts to achieve similar weight at ages 6 to 23 months. Table 3 shows trends in the mean change in relative weight in kilograms from birth among children aged 6 to 23 months by race/Hispanic origin, and by breastfeeding history for the total population and those with normal birth weight. Sample sizes were too small to analyze race/Hispanic origin and breastfeeding groups among low birth weight infants, so only overall estimates for low birth weight are shown. As expected, children with low birth weight had a higher mean change in relative weight from birth compared with children with normal birth weight (eg, 1.19 kg vs 0.60 kg in 2011–2014). The trend in change in relative weight was not significant overall, or for infants and children with normal and low birth weight. In contrast, there were differences in trend by race/Hispanic origin, with significant increases in the mean change in relative weight between 1988–1994 and 2011–2014 observed for non-Hispanic black children overall (the mean change in relative weight increased by a mean of 240 g from 0.73 to 0.97 kg; P = .032 for trend) and those with normal birth weight (mean change in relative weight increased by a mean of 220 g from 0.70 to 0.92 kg; P = .039 for trend). Among normal birth weight children, there was also a significant increasing trend in the mean change in relative weight among children who were never breastfed ( P = .01). Results were similar for the mean change in weight-for-age z score between birth and survey participation (see Supplemental Table 6 ) with significant trends for non-Hispanic black children overall and those with normal birth weight, and for never breastfed children with normal birth weight. However, in contrast to no overall trend observed for the mean change in relative weight in Table 3 , there was an increasing trend in the mean change in weight-for-age z score among all children ( P = .04) as well as among those ever breastfed ( P = .04). As noted in the Methods section, trends in the mean change in z score may be less appropriate for assessing population trends in change in mean weight gain with age.

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